Teaching Islam: Between Differences and Distinctions

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Assalamualaikum WBT.

Alhamdulillāh. Solātan wa Salāman ‘alā Rasulillāh. Amma ba’d.

The complexity of Islamic education requires some paradigm shiftings. Rather than seeing the differences as an obstacle, we should reexamine the way we perceive it, based on the Quranic guideline, and some historical experiences.

وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ لَجَعَلَكُمْ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً وَلَٰكِن لِّيَبْلُوَكُمْ فِي مَا آتَاكُمْ ۖ فَاسْتَبِقُوا الْخَيْرَاتِ ۚ إِلَى اللَّهِ مَرْجِعُكُمْ جَمِيعًا فَيُنَبِّئُكُم بِمَا كُنتُمْ فِيهِ تَخْتَلِفُونَ

“… Had Allah willed, He would have made you one nation [united in religion], but [He intended] to test you in what He has given you; so race to [all that is] good. To Allah is your return all together, and He will [then] inform you concerning that over which you used to differ.” [Al-Māidah 5: 48]

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّا خَلَقْنَاكُم مِّن ذَكَرٍ وَأُنثَىٰ وَجَعَلْنَاكُمْ شُعُوبًا وَقَبَائِلَ لِتَعَارَفُوا ۚ إِنَّ أَكْرَمَكُمْ عِندَ اللَّهِ أَتْقَاكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ خَبِيرٌ

O mankind, indeed We have created you from male and female and made you peoples and tribes that you may know one another. Indeed, the most noble of you in the sight of Allah is the most righteous of you. Indeed, Allah is Knowing and Acquainted. [Al-Hujurāt 49: 13]

The differences and diversified aspects of life are created by Allah and meant to be like that. If we truly dedicate ourselves to the genuine spirit of Islam, we might realize that practicing and teaching Islam in a pluralistic society is more reflecting the Islamic identity than being in a monotonous society. From the Prophetic era, up to the last Muslim political entity, The Ottoman, Islam was always practiced in a multi cultural, racial, and religious society.

HOW ISLAMIC SCHOOL DEALS WITH DIFFERENCES

From my understanding after watching the video, schools have their right to maintain the standard curriculum which must be made known to parents prior registering their children. Historically, students chose to study with which Shaykh they preferred and at which Madrasa, with the information of what is the methodology and school of thought the madrasa and the Shaykh represent.

Parents must respect the school and must maintain good bilateral relationship so that any concern will be properly channeled. Nowadays, when parents disagree with certain things at school, rather than discussing them with the right persons, they take the matter to social media. When parents do not teach their children to respect school as well as the school do not teach the students to respect the parents, it will be a lose-lose battle.

Based on the 13th verse of Surah al-Hujurāt, the diversity is one of the main characters for human civilization. It should not be considered as a source of problems. But the differences are guided with the principal of lita’ārafū (لتعارفوا). The word lita’ārafū contains:

  • seeing the differences as interesting
  • wanting to know and understand the differences
  • require two way process

This should help the school to build its policy on tackling issues as sensitive as mazhab, ideology, trend, Salaf vs. Khalaf, Sunni vs Shiah, etc. School is a learning institution. Any issue, must stick to learning. Outsiders including parents, should not interfere the process of learning. Any additional values should only enter school through the process of learning.

In a school, we might experience for example, a student gave public speaking saying that reciting zikr after prayer in jamaah is bid’ah or music is haram. This naturally caused chaos among students. Some teachers agreed and some disagreed. To make sure that school maintains its identity as a school, school is advised to use the PNP policy. Positive-Negative-Positive.

  • [POSITIVE] we salute the student for his ability to express his opinion in public, willing to take risks which is crucially needed for leadership quality.
  • [NEGATIVE] we remind him that ‘throwing’ wildly his opinion like that will not help him to achieve what he himself wanted to achieve. Talking is easy, but teaching and learning are not.
  • [POSITIVE] We motivate him to use proper language, and support his opinion with evidence, argument, and come up with name of scholars who agree with his opinion. We give him this task so that he learn and other students too. We thank him, for raising the issue, so that other students alert with it.

In the class, teachers teach standard curriculum. It is hard for others to decide if the school curriculum is Shafi’e based, or non-Mazhab, because we do not use text books. Students are taught the right way to perform wudhu’ and solat. Some obvious differences like reciting Qunut in Fajr prayer are highlighted and students are made to understand the reasoning behind both contradict opinions. They’re encouraged to refer Fiqh al-Sunnah and Bidayah al-Mujtahid for advance level, as well as Kifayah al-Akhyar, al-Ikhtiyar or al-Iqna’ (Shafi’e and Hanafi’s reference in Fiqh). They conclude their understanding not necessarily on making choice between the two opinions, but to follow the Imam with adab and akhlaq. If the imam recite the Qunut, then recite with him. if the imam leave the Qunut, then do not delay the sujud to read the Qunut on your own.

Knowledge must never separated from Akhlaq. Knowledge with Akhlaq is an asset. Knowledge without Akhlaq is a liability.

DEALING WITH OTHER FAITHS

Again, school is a place to learn.

Other faiths are learnt in two modules. Theologically, the differences between Islamic faith and others are taught in Aqidah subject. In this subjects, students see differences more than similarities. For civilizational studies, the subject is taught in World Religions (civilizational studies). Here, students see similarities more than differences. For example, what other faiths talk about environment, medical ethics, as well as architecture, rituals, music, etc.

These are some of the main points I learnt from the sharing of Mr. Habeeb Quadri, Shaykh Omar Qureshi, and Mrs. Sharifa Abukar, together with our practice at school. Diversity is responsible to enhance the development. It is a rahmah. Only if the spirit of lita’ārafū is obeyed.

SYLLABUS OF IBERR AND JAMIATUL ULAMA (KNZ) TA’LIMI

The IBERR is dynamic and reflects some form of social-reconstructionistic approach. Contemporary issues such as environment, Islam and modernism etc. While The Jamiatul Ulama (KZN) Ta’limi’s syllabus is more essentialistic and perhaps perennialistic if the Turāth is used rather than text books. Both of the syllabus have their own strength. The only concern is not to overload students with too many content which the main objective at school level is to positively train the students to know how to know, and love to know, becoming the lovers or knowledge and learning.

Wallahu A’lam.

HASRIZAL
Malaysia

 

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1 Comment

  • Farid
    Posted February 26, 2015 at 3:35 am 0Likes

    Assalamualaikum Ustaz. Have you heard about formative assessment before. It is an old concept that we already know, but now the UK system is trying to revive it. I think this may help in the objective of student-centred learning of KMSS. Ustaz can have a look at it by searching for “Inside the Black Box: Raising …” And “Working inside the black box”.

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